STARTED Project Focus Regions
Total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) (or gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)) performed on the national/regional territory during a given year, in millions of euro and as a percentage of GDP. The indicator thus includes domestically performed R&D which is financed from abroad but excludes R&D funds paid abroad.
The R&D intensity amounted to 0.64% of GDP and was by 0.07 percentage points higher compared to 2011. The private component of expenditure on the intramural R&D (Business enterprises+Private non-profit sector) increased, rising from 57.7% of total R&D spent in 2013 to 58.3% in 2014. The contribution of government fell by 0.7 percentage points (from 14.0% to 13.3%). The contribution of the Higher education sector remained quite stable (from 28.3% to 28.4%).
They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions might be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The website has been developed by the Federal Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).
This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. GERD is here expressed as a share of GDP. Nwaubani, J.C., Kapoulas, N., & Lepida, G.
GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a country, funded nationally and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad. GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors.
However, even the more industrialized countries of Serbia and Croatia suffer from weak university-industry linkages. Strong growth in the number of doctorate-holders has enabled researcher density to grow in most countries. The expenditure on intramural Development and Research increased in all the four sectors. In particular, the Business enterprises expenditure on R&D (BERD) registered a 7.5% increase on the previous year, the Higher education sector a +6.5%, the Government a +0.8% and the Private non-profit sector a +5.5%.
2002. This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent Patent and families Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, “green” energy technologies). Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.
A model for the total intramural research and development (R&D) expenditure (GERD) by sectors of performance within the EU21
- It increased by 6.2% compared to 2013.
- The publication contains topical statistical information about the demographic, social and economic development of the country over the 2013 – 2017 period.
- Data Analysis Bulletin, 16, 91-103.
- The data are obtained through statistical surveys which are regularly conducted at national level covering R & D performing entities in the private and public sectors.
- Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.
R&D data are coherent with data obtained from the Innovation survey. Data are available for all users on the NSI website and on NSI information system INFOSTAT under the heading R&D, Information and Innovation Society. The statistical survey on research and development activity (R&D) provides internationally comparable information about the characterization of resources (expenditure and personnel) on research and development in Bulgaria. R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force.
Data Analysis Bulletin, 16, 91-103. In 2013, governments adopted the SEE 2020 Strategy mirroring its EU namesake, in which they commit to raising their R&D intensity and boosting the size of their highly skilled labour force. This strategy is complemented by the Western Balkans Regional Research and Development Strategy for Innovation (2013) promoting technology transfer from public research organizations to the private sector and greater collaboration with industry; it advocates smart specialization in high-opportunity areas, such as â€˜greenâ€™ energy and innovation, and includes a component promoted by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics of bringing the regionâ€™s statistics up to EU standards by 2018. In 2011 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 429.6 million BGN or by 1.9% more in comparison with the previous year, as their growth compared to the previous years in absolute value had no impact on the R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as % of GDP) which is one of the key indicators for measuring progress of the European Union (EU) in achieving the targets of the new Europe 2020 strategy – a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The indicator ‘R&D expenditure’ is defined as all expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit, whatever the source of funds.
The direct collection of R&D data through dedicated surveys has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual. Administrative data sources (which may include both financial data from revenue agencies as well as other types of administrative sources, such as company records) may be used as another source of information for compilation of R&D data, if the concepts, definitions and coverage used by administrative data sources are close to those contained in the Frascati Manual sufficiently. The analysis of Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD) published by Eurostat proves that the developed and rich countries dedicate the largest proportion of GDP to R&D. Unfortunately, Poland is at the end of the list almost. R&D data are used for estimation of capitalization of R&D expenditure in the national accounts.
Data in these fields collected by Eurostat serves both policymakers and scientists. In 2009 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) is 361.1 million BGN which increases by 10.8% in comparison with the previous year and the annual growth tendency retains for the period of 2005 – 2009. In 2010 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) is 420.1 million BGN which increases by 16.4% in comparison with the previous year and the annual growth tendency retains for the period of 2006 – 2010. In 2013, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 521.2 million BGN which was 5.0% more than the previous year.
Germany and Poland are the biggest cigarettes producers in Europe
(2014). A model for the total intramural research and development (R&D) expenditure (GERD) by sectors of performance within the EU21.
The data is further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by size class, by citizenship, by age groups, by fields of science, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2) and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Science, engineering and technology (SET) annual expenditure by UK government departments, research councils and higher education funding councils; by current and constant prices. Research and experimental development (R) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, Â§ 63 ). R intensity (R expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, regional and national levels.
Venture Capital Investment (VCI) is the subset of private equity which is intended for investments in listed companies and firms which develop new products and technologies. VCI serves as the early stage funding (seed and start-up), or it is used for expansion of a venture (later venture). Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD,