Note. All dietary factors refer to dietary consumption.

The study demonstrates that 32% of respondents were employed at jobs that required high level of physical activity and 49% moderate physical activity. Farmers, workers and business were categorized as high physical work and the office related jobs categorized low physical group. The proportions of pathophysiological factors potentially associated with HTN were diabetes (11%), overweight (30%), obesity (23%), and central obesity (50%).

This chapter provides an excellent resource of scientific information for all investigators. Finally, the book ends with a useful appendix describing the use of plants in cancer prevention. Former Shaman Pharmaceuticals scientists Moran et al. [100] discuss the irony in the situations described above, indicating that the majority of the biotech industry is not involved in bioprospecting, since most companies favor the use of cheaper and faster synthetic technologies over the complex process involved in exploring for natural products.

While the West has ignored traditional knowledge in designing artificial studies that isolate chemical components and evaluate their toxicity and bioactivity to later take finished products into clinical settings, the East has followed an inverse strategy, that is, valuing traditional knowledge by applying original remedies and therapies in the medical clinic and then subjecting those that work to biochemical research and development. While the West followed a basic research paradigm of random screening, component analysis, and synthesis, the East recognized the holistic action of herbal medicines in seeking ways to industrialize them. As a result of the foregoing factors, Western science has developed economic botany, which uses a methodology of chemical taxonomy based on the assumption that only by knowing the chemistry of plants we can discover their active principles and bioactivity. This has led to the current emphasis on synthetic chemistry for the development of modern medicines. Building on the success of the first conference, in 1988, Dr. Cabieses presided over the second congress.


The compound is available by synthesis from phloroglucinol or by semi-synthesis from hesperidin, a by-product of the Citrus industry. The activity of luteolin is quite different from that of the conventional drugs used to treat bronchitis. Thus, luteolin shows a combination of antibacterial, expectorant, antitussive and anti-inflammatory activity.

One quarter of patients with arterial hypertension did not receive the therapy prescribed by the doctor. Almost three quarters of those surveyed had elevated blood pressure values. 19.1% of study participants were obese and 41.2% were overweight. We found that 6.3% of screened participants suffered from diabetes mellitus, 5.5% from coronary artery disease, and 6.3% and 4.0% had previous history of myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke respectively. We used volumetric sphygmography to evaluate vascular stiffness and identify preclinical and clinical atherosclerosis.

Data Analysis Descriptive statistics were obtained to describe basic characteristics of the study participants. Descriptive statistics were also used to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Inferential statistics were used to compare male and female substance use and for differences between UG and PG for age of initiation of substance use. Age of initiation was compared amongst two groups, greater than 16 years of age and 16 years of age or younger at initiation, and then further analyzed to assess impact on difficulty in quitting the habit. ChiSquare test was used to measure the risk associated with family history of substance use and current substance use and to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards substance use.

Most interestingly, quercetin can inhibit the expression of PSA and the androgen receptors on prostate cells, and holds potential for the prevention of prostate cancer. Only limited data are available on the pharmacokinetics of quercetin.

Dietary Supplements and Multiple Sclerosis: A Health Professional’s Guide

13.3% were mouth snuff users which are almost double of cigarettes smoker. Around 54% of study participants were using solid oil in their kitchen for cooking. As we had data on number of days per week that research participants consumed fruit (average number of fruit servings per day), these data were categorized dichotomous by cut of three days per week. Data shows 65% of participants were consuming fresh fruits less than three days per week as compared to 27% who were consuming fruits more than three days per week. These variables have been described in Table 2.

Given the ubiquity of the dietary exposure to flavonoids, it is unclear why infant leukaemia is so rare (less than 40 cases per million newborns). Other causes, like an impaired DNA repair, are probably involved, and ongoing molecular epidemiology studies will hopefully clarify this important matter.

Wheat bran may have an effect on oestrogen metabolism as well (Kritchevsky and Bonefield, 1994). Phytates and phytate derivatives (e.g. phytic acid) are found in flax, wheat germ and bran (Thompson, 1994). These compounds possess antioxidant properties with potential use in food preservation. They also have hypocholesterolemic, anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects (Oomah and Mazza, 2000). Definitions, backgrounds and an overview 15 In the final chapter, Chapter 9, Gail Mahady provides a comprehensive description of information resources for scientists interested in dietary supplements of plant origin.

time without compromising the representativeness of the sample, a two-phase cluster sampling technique was used. The sample size was calculated to be able to determine the effect of risk factors on non-communicable diseases. The resulting sample size was 1,200.

Ginseng is generally considered as an aphrodisiac (Robbers and Tyler, 2000). Active principles responsible for most of ginseng’s activities are believed to be ginsenosides (or panaxosides). These are a series of triterpenoid saponins. Ginseng root contains 2-3 per cent ginsenosides with Rg1, Rc, Rd, Rb1, Rb2 and Rb0 being the most important (Sticher, 1998).

Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females.

Vascular biology assumes a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension and target organ damage (TOD). Endothelial activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autoimmune vascular dysfunction, and vascular smooth-muscle dysfunction are initial events in hypertension. Nutrientgene interactions determine a broad array of phenotypic consequences, such as vascular problems and hypertension.

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