Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a notifiable disease (2012 OIE List) and is considered to have socio-economic implications for public health and, in particular, international trade in animals and products of animal origin. Brucellosis is a major public and animal health problem in many regions of the world. Although it rarely kills infected animals, considering the economic damage the disease can cause, brucellosis is one of the most serious livestock diseases worldwide.
hardjo-bovis is also associated with persistent reproductive tract infections that can cause infertility in cattle. FMD is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all cloven-hoofed animals, and is widespread throughout the world. FMD cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases such as swine vesicular disease (SVD).
T foetus may also be transmitted when the semen from infected bulls is used during artificial insemination. The causative bacterium of paratuberculosis, M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis, is known to survive pasteurization of milk and other dairy products, and therefore could be a risk to human health.
Transmission of BSE in cattle occurs through ingestion of feed containing contaminated bone and meat meal. Transmission does not appear to occur naturally between cattle, though some evidence suggests there may be a maternally associated risk for calves born to infected cows. While pathogenesis details are unknown, studies have shown that after the agent enters the animal through oral exposure, it replicates in the Peyer’s patches of the ileum and migrates to the central nervous system via peripheral nerves. The signs of the disease are hyperthermia, coughing, nasal and ocular discharge, anorexia, and dyspnea (if the disease is progressing towards fatal pneumonia).
The disease can affect all domestic animals; however, young animals and pregnant or lactating animals are the most susceptible to the disease. The clinical signs that may be seen are abortion, arthritis, respiratory disease, and acute septicemia. Enteric disease, often presenting as a bloody, watery diarrhea with pyrexia, is the most common clinical manifestation.
Brucellosis is commonly transmitted to susceptible animals by direct contact with infected animals or in an environment that has been contaminated with discharge from infected animals. Brucellosis is thus a herd or flock problem.
These conditions can lead to infection of the udder and perineum of the dam, along with contaminated calving environments. Alternately, the presence of several scouring calves can severely contaminate a calf-rearing area. These enteropathogens, also known as attaching and effacing E. coli, may produce verotoxins that contribute to more severe hemorrhagic diarrhea.
In most cases, growth is retarded and there is coat loss. Severely affected sheep may die eight to 10 days into the infection. Bluetongue, or catarrhal fever, is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Orbivirus and family Reoviridae. It is a noncontagious disease transmitted by insects to wild and domesticated ruminants, especially sheep. The primary sign is infertility caused by embryonic death, which contributes to repeat breeding and scenarios where cows are in heat when they should be pregnant.
cattle, as well as in certain wildlife populations. Bovine respiratory complex in feedlot cattle, as well as acute intestinal disease in dairy cows, can contribute to financial losses and significant economic consequences.
The virus is mainly present in the lower airways (the lobes of the lungs), where it damages ciliated epithelial cells that normally protect the lung against microbial invasion. RSV infection often leads to secondary bacterial infection, notably with Pasteurella haemolytica and Corynebacterium pyogenes.
This group therefore constitutes a major source of infection for the rest of the herd. In addition, BVD-PI animals sooner or later develop the fatal form of BVD called mucosal disease (MD). The number of BVD-PI animals in an infected herd is of the order of 1% (although the percentage can be as high as 27%) and detecting them is primordial in the control of Pestivirus disease. Bovine tuberculosis is a respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. It is a major infectious disease found worldwide in domestic animals, particularly
Bovine coronavirus is transmitted via the oral-fecal or respiratory routes, and infected animals will typically shed the virus in their feces, particularly during parturition. Cryptosporidium can be a common nonviral cause of diarrhea in immunocompetent persons (e.g., children) and can have a severe health impact on immunocompromised persons. Infected animals can transmit the disease directly to humans, and there is also a risk of cryptosporidiosis being transmitted through surface and drinking water that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected animal. Many animals, especially pigs, cattle and poultry, may also be infected but show no clinical illness. Such animals may be important in relation to the spread of infection between flocks and herds and also as a source of food contamination and human infections.
Infected wild ruminants have the potential to transmit the disease to domestic ruminants. Bovine besnoitiosis is a vector-transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. The disease spreads from one animal to another by insect vectors-specifically, biting flies such as Tabanus and Stomoxys. All cattle breeds, independent of sex or age, can be infected. When an infected bull is naturally bred with cows, 30%-90% become infected, which may suggest the existence of strain differences as well as a variation in breed susceptibility to the disease.
Cattle can show severe clinical signs of the disease, whereas infected sheep are often asymptomatic. Affected cattle can experience different stages of the disease with a range of symptoms including skin thickening and swelling, hair loss, and skin necrosis; bulls can become infertile.